The next issue I would like to discuss is one that likely many Canadians are concerned about. When the Liberal government, along with leader Justin Trudeau, won a majority government in 2015, a major promise was that of electoral reform; a while later this promise was abandoned. Therefore the question is should there be a change in the way the Canadian voting system works?
The current Canadian electoral system is known as a ‘first past the post’ system. Each province is divided into provincial electoral districts, commonly known as ridings, and voters elect Members of Parliament (MP) to represent them. One candidate per party is allowed in each riding and the candidate does not need a majority of the votes to win; they simply need more votes than any other one candidate. There are also federal electoral districts which are generally the same as provincial, possibly with revised boundaries.
One of the major issues with this system is that it does not represent the population fairly or accurately. Since the candidate does not need a particular number of votes or over 50% of the votes to win, they do not represent the choice of most of the voters in that particular riding. This is a major problem since the official duty of the government is to represent the people and its interests; obviously this is not the best way of going about it.
In my opinion Canada should implement a voting system such that the elected humans best represent the people. If a particular party wins 37% of the vote in a particular provincial or federal election, then the party should have 37% of the seats allocated to them. This type of system is known as a Proportional Representation. I will not explain here exactly how it works nor the level of sophistication it requires to deal with particular problems that inevitably arise.
A voting system should be implemented close to that of the Single Transferable Vote (STV), a type of proportional representation. This would allow voters to rank all or some candidates according to their personal preferences. For the first round, all votes are tallied according to the voters first preference and if a particular number of votes is reached then that person is elected. More often than not the first preference will not meet the threshold; therefore, the candidate with the lowest number of votes received is eliminated.
Now, all those who voted for the eliminated candidate should have a second preference; these votes are redistributed among the remaining candidates. This cycle goes on until a threshold has been reached and a candidate has been elected. The elected candidate, for the most part, represents those living in the riding; even though this particular human may not be a first preference, enough voters liked them enough to place the candidate as a second or third preference.
Once all the ridings have an elected MP, say in a provincial election, the party with the higher number of elected officials gains control of the province. In federal elections, this translates to seats in the House of Commons for elected Members of Parliament, and the party occupying the most seats wins the election; the leader of that particular party is then elevated to Prime Minister of Canada. Ridings would likely need to have boundaries redrawn within each province to ensure that each has approximately the same number of people voting within it.
There are a few issues that would inevitably have to be smoothed out but the benefits would largely outweigh the costs; it would give a much better representation of how voters actually feel than the ‘first past the post’ system currently in place. This system could increase voter turnout since it matters a great deal more the way voters rank candidates and voters would have a greater sense of satisfaction knowing that their votes are bringing about real, high quality change.